Tagged location efficiency

LEED ND regional suitability analysis going national

Regular readers know I’m interested in how to use LEED ND as a tool for assessing regional development suitability.  I’ve been tardy in relaying news about good work being done in other regions.  Back in January, Jason Woycke contacted me about replicating the analysis for King County, in the Seattle region.  Jason is the President of Cascadia Planning and at the time was a Masters student in the planning program at the University of Washington.

The Cascade Land Conservancy was Jason’s client for the project, and according to Jason’s website, the maps will “help the Cascade Land Conservancy visually communicate the need for careful planning of where growth should be accommodated in the region and where growth should be avoided”.

Jason finished the analysis (I think near the end of spring semester 2011), and it looks great.  He generously agreed to provide me with a copy of the full report, which you can see here (large pdf).  Jason was awarded the UW Department of Urban Design and Planning 2011 Professionals Council Outstanding Professional Project Award for his work.

The analysis Jason used for King County appears to be very similar to my approach for the Twin Cities – focusing on the Smart Location and Linkage prerequisites.  I don’t believe any of the Neighborhood Pattern and Design prerequisites were included, which is a minor difference between the two approaches.

Is Chicagoland next?

More recently, I’ve heard from another aspiring urban planning masters student who is exploring the possibility of replicating this analysis for the Chicago region.  If this analysis happens, it will be complete in spring of 2012.

LEED ND resources for local governments

A friend tipped me off to this opportunity for local communities to get design assistance based on LEED ND.  EPA is funding this work as part of it’s Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities program.

Through a 3-day intensive visit and consultation, the Global Green team will evaluate a specific neighborhood. Prior to the visit the team will conduct an extensive review of existing plans, the neighborhood form, and the existing pattern of development. During the site assessment the team will identify the existing positive qualities of the neighborhood, consult with community stakeholders in meetings and a public workshop, and identify major opportunities to improve neighborhood sustainability.

At the conclusion of the visit the team will present recommendations for both physical and policy changes that may include street width reductions, ecological restoration, integrated energy and water infrastructure, creating standards for in-fill and transit-oriented development, or zoning code revisions to allow for urban agriculture or mixed-use development.

This is another significant output of the HUD-DOT-EPA partnership, one of the others being the metrics for sustainable transportation.

Another tool that I found from the Global Green website is A Local Government Guide to LEED for Neighborhood Development from USGBC, which includes multiple approaches local governments can take with the rating system, including reviewing plans for consistency with the rating system and determining what areas of the community might be eligible, which is a concept frequent readers of this blog might be familiar with.

Using LEED ND to strengthen existing neighborhoods

pride at loring park

I’ve written a lot about LEED ND, the rating system built to define sustainable neighborhoods, including how to use it as a framework for sustainable regional planning.  Typically, the rating system is applied to new development or redevelopment: when new streets, buildings and infrastructure systems are being built.  Rarely has it been applied to an existing neighborhood, where development or redevelopment is occurring at a slow pace and changes to major infrastructure systems are unlikely or occurring incrementally.  That application was simply not the original purpose of LEED ND.  I’ve always viewed LEED ND as providing an alternative to a model of traditional suburban development that has low connectivity, low density and poor location efficiency.  In its current form, it is best suited as a guide to help us plan and build new development more sustainably.

That doesn’t mean that there aren’t many valuable lessons for existing neighborhoods within the LEED ND system.  While we know that the greenest development is almost always the one that is already built, existing neighborhoods can often lack connectivity, walkability, density or other design features, which if retrofitted over time, could make them more livable and sustainable.

Neighborhoods and cities concerned about maintaining and improving livability, sustainability and financial viability are using LEED ND in just this way.  The Loring Park neighborhood in Minneapolis is in the process of creating a neighborhood master plan to shape their community for the next twenty years.  The neighborhood partnered with the University of Minnesota’s Center for Urban and Regional Affairs to assess the neighborhood’s sustainability using the LEED ND system.  Loring Park would also like to become officially certified as a LEED ND “project”, either under the current system or under a pilot existing neighborhoods program an alternative path for neighborhood and small areas plans that USGBC is developing.  A volunteer group, including yours truly, is working to help the neighborhood meet this goal.

The purpose of pursuing certification is to make this already green neighborhood even greener.  If Loring Park falls short in certain parts of the rating system, these shortcomings can be turned directly into goals for the master plan.  The Loring Park Draft Concept Plan includes a goal related to sustainable buildings and infrastructure and includes these goals for the use of LEED ND:

Further utilize the LEED-ND rating framework to:

  • periodically gauge neighborhood wide performance and progress toward sustainability goals
  • set in place (or augment) design guidelines or to set parameters for private project review and approval, or to gauge the merits of specific capital improvement projects
  • structure performance criteria for various incentives
  • preparation for government grants or other support from agencies that are familiar with LEED-ND rating system or that directly utilize LEED- ND standards as performance criteria

Our volunteer group, organized by the USGBC Minnesota Chapter and Loring Park residents, has just begun the certification process for the neighborhood.  This process will be a great opportunity to document the challenges of applying LEED ND to an existing neighborhood and review the rating system’s usefulness for a community planning process.  Stay tuned.

 

Location Efficiency is More Important than Home Efficiency for Energy Savings

 

An EPA-supported study shows that if you’re concerned about energy use from urban development (in this case, residential buildings), you should look at location efficiency first, rather than building efficiency.  The study describes location efficiency this way:

Housing that is located in a walkable neighborhood near public transit, employment centers, schools, and other amenities allows residents to drive less and thereby reduces transportation costs.  Development in such locations is deemed to be “location efficient,” given a more compact design, higher-density construction, and/ or inclusion of a diverse mix of uses.

As the graph above shows, locating housing in location-efficient neighborhoods has a greater impact on the combined housing-transportation energy use than improving the performance of buildings and automobiles.  EPA says that locating homes in these areas, where some automobile trips can be replaced with transit or other transportation modes, lead to reductions in household energy use of 39 to 50 percent.  While I’m a little hesitant about the study’s assumptions of a 45 percent reduction in vehicle miles in TOD neighborhoods, the larger point is still valid: location has a large impact on energy use by urban development, larger than is often assumed, and deserving of more attention than it’s given.

The study uses energy consumption data for housing and transportation that was collected as national averages, not for any particular location.  The “energy-efficient” homes data was based on Energy Star homes.  So, of course, results from specific regions or cities may vary.  Also, Energy Star is not the most energy efficient way to build a home, but it’s relatively affordable and has large market share compared with other home rating systems.

While location efficiency may be more important than building efficiency in terms of energy savings, it’s obviously a more complicated and politically charged topic than building energy efficiency.  Improvements to buildings bring nearly immediate and focused benefits to owners, while decisions about density and location have benefits which are more widely distributed and whose paybacks accumulate over a longer period.  Matthew Lister, who works for the firm that prepared the study, told Environmental Building News we shouldn’t just focus on the energy savings, though:

“The underlying story is about quality of life.” The choice to live in a densely settled, mixed-use neighborhood, Lister argues, is not just about saving money or even the planet; it’s about “less time in the car and access to more choices,” as well as more work opportunities. The report also touches on social equity, he said. “People have to drive further and further out so they can afford a house,” but then end up “shackled to two car payments,” which raises the effective cost of their housing.

Using LEED ND for municipal planning and zoning

This video from Criterion Planners shows a step-by-step process to use LEED ND to assess “smart” locations in a city. This process could be used during a plan update, or to make changes to the zoning code. Knowing the process, and which parcels are eligible, can also help the city increase the number of eligible areas using regulatory tools.

This process is very similar to the method I used to assess LEED ND eligibility and “location efficiency” for the Twin Cities metro region in previous posts.

What locations in the Twin Cities are eligible for LEED ND: Part 3

There are a few requirements of LEED ND that can technically be met through the project design, but may not be able to be met in reality based on the existing built environment, or the current planning or zoning rules in a particular location. This post explores where land use regulations restrict development from meeting LEED ND requirements.

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What locations in the Twin Cities are eligible for LEED ND: Part 2

Smart Location is a prerequisite of LEED ND that is about identifying locations best suited for development. This post identifies areas in the Twin Cities that meet all the requirements of Smart Location, and are not off-limits based on the analysis from Part 1, resulting in a map of "Location Efficient" sites in the Twin Cities metro.

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What locations in the Twin Cities are eligible for LEED ND: Part 1

This post includes some background on LEED ND and the specific location criteria contained in the rating system. Locations are identified which meet four location prerequisites, which deal with sensitive ecological or cultural resources. Combined, these prerequisites identify what is "off-limits" for future development.

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HUD to start scoring grant applications using LEED ND. So what does that mean?

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD recently announced that they would start scoring grant applications by their “location efficiency” and use LEED for Neighborhood Development as a tool to do so.  Location efficiency means new projects would have greater accessibility to surrounding jobs, commercial areas and transportation options.

HUD distributes over $3 billion in grants, so this policy change could potentially have a big impact on where and how new housing gets built.  HUD provides many affordable housing programs, builds public housing, oversees the FHA, and regulates Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

So what does it mean that they will begin scoring applications with LEED ND?  The details aren’t out yet, but the rating system certainly has a lot to say about location efficiency as well as what locations are appropriate for development based on environmental significance.  So, where might future HUD grantees be able to propose projects?  Well, location efficiency will likely make up only one of many scoring categories, and I would be surprised if projects could be rejected solely based on poor location.  However, we could start with the assumption that those locations that meet at least all the prerequisites for LEED ND would score highest.

In the next series of posts, I’ll look at what locations in the Twin Cities metro meet the prerequisites for LEED ND, as best as I can without having real project details.  This exercise isn’t just about HUD, the goals of LEED ND are to promote smarter growth, make more energy efficient communities, provide real transportation options and generally build stronger, more sustainable communities.  Thinking about the locations in the metro that are eligible for LEED ND is another way of thinking about where new growth should be planned that could provide the most sustainable outcome.  If anyone ever wanted to do true regional planning, perhaps this is a place to start.